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The book provides a scholarly reflection on the principles of leasehold law that will be of interest to practitioners, academics, and students of landlord and tenant law. Notes on Contributors Introduction 1. This website uses cookies to improve user experience.

By using our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our Cookie Policy. It looks like you are located in Australia or New Zealand Close. Visit the Australia site Continue on UK site. Visit the Australia site. Under the terms of a lease agreement, the freeholder the outright owner of the land or property grants permission for a leaseholder to take ownership of the property for a specified period of time. This could range from 21 years to years and during this time the leaseholder will pay ground rent to the freeholder.

Freeholders lease property primarily for the initial premium paid by the original leaseholder for granting the lease; but in addition ground rent often a token amount will be payable over a long term, and this may be an attractive fixed income investment for some types of investor.


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To do this the landlord must first serve a valid notice under section of the Law of Property Act - the Notice of Seeking Possession. There are a number of companies which specialise in buying ground rents for long term investment from landlords who want to sell their ground rents. Normally they focus on purchasing reversionary ground rents , either for initial income or for the opportunity of a reversion of the underlying property at some point in the future.

The value of ground rents is affected by the rent review pattern on future income increases, the value of the underlying property, the unexpired lease length and whether marriage value is applicable. Prior to selling ground rents there is a statutory obligation incumbent on both parties that Section V notices are served on the long leaseholders. This gives them a two-month period within which to respond.

Upon expiry of the notice, a transaction can proceed at the price stated on the notice or higher but not lower for up to 12 months subsequently. This then allows completion upon sale of the last flats without the need for Section V notices. Before the Land Registry recorded the ground rent, and the rent is evident from the entry that can be requested from the website.

From 13 October the Land Registry changed its procedures, and there is no longer any provision for entering the rent on the register.

Landlord/Tenant

This can result in subsequent mortgage refusals, and make the property unsellable. Leaseholders have a right after 2 years to extend the lease and reduce ground rent to "peppercorn" or zero, but developers have responded with year leases that make the valuation - based on the ground rent and term - beyond the reach of leaseholders, and sell the freehold - often before the development is finished - to exploitative offshore companies.

The English "ground rent scandal" has been widely reported in the press. In MP Peter Bottomley described the scandal of ground rents as "legalised extortion". We do work with a number of stakeholders and we can certainly see how we can do more. In June the UK government announced that leasehold tenure would be reformed, with new long leases having zero ground rent.

In Scots law , the term ground rent is not employed, but its place is taken, for practical purposes, by the ground annual , which bears a double meaning:. Feu duty in Scotland was ended by the Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. Scotland Act In the Republic of Ireland ground rents have been a feature of urban life.

The term ground rent is applied in many U. The State of Maryland maintains provisions for ground rents, primarily in the Baltimore area. In , an emergency bill was presented by Democratic Maryland Governor Martin O'Malley to completely ban new ground rents [27] and prevent ground owners from seizing houses from delinquent homeowners. New ground rent leases can no longer be created after January 22, [32] , and ground rent owners must register their leases with the State Department of Assessments in order to collect rents or file a lien for unpaid rents [33] although failure to register no longer risks extinguishment of the property right.

Ground rents in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania are considered real estate and, in cases of intestacy , go to the heirs. They are rent services and not rent charges, [ clarification needed ] the statute Quia Emptores never having been in force in Pennsylvania, and are subject to all the incidents of such rents. The grantee of a ground rent may mortgage , sell, or otherwise dispose of the grant as he pleases, and while the rent is paid the land cannot be sold or the value of the improvements lost.

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The owner of land can occupy it, or can improve it and sell the improvements such as structures , while retaining title to the land, and charge the buyer ground rent. A ground rent being a freehold estate , created by deed , and perpetual in duration, no presumption that it had been released could, at common law , arise from lapse of time. However, by statute Act of 27 April , s. Ground rents were formerly irredeemable after a certain time, but the creation of irredeemable ground rents is now forbidden Pennsylvania Act 7 Assembly, 22 April The obligor is the party obliged to pay, and the obligee the party entitled to receive, the ground rent.

The amount of a ground rent may be changed by either party once every five years, but, unless the parties agree otherwise, the amount of such a change may be no greater than the percentage change in the Consumer Price Index or other standard prescribed by statute during the previous three years.

Chapter 3. Judicial Directions in Landlord and Tenant Law

In Chisholm, Hugh ed. Cambridge University Press. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with chief rent.

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