Since inorganic chemistry deals with all compounds other than organic ones, the scope of inorganic chemistry is vast. Consequently, we have to study the syntheses, structures, bondings, reactions, and physical properties of elements, molecular compounds, and solid-state compounds of elements. In recent years, the structures of crystalline compounds have been determined comparatively easily by use of single crystal X-ray structural analysis, and by through the use of automatic diffractometers.
This progress has resulted in rapid development of new areas of inorganic chemistry that were previously inaccessible. Research on higher dimensional compounds, such as multinuclear complexes, cluster compounds, and solid-state inorganic compounds in which many metal atoms and ligands are bonded in a complex manner, is becoming much easier.
In this section, research areas in inorganic chemistry will be surveyed on the basis of the classification of the bonding modes of inorganic materials. Elementary substances exist in various forms. For example, helium and other rare gas elements exist as single-atom molecules; hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen as two-atom molecules; carbon, phosphorus, and sulfur as several solid allotropes; and sodium, gold, etc. Although elementary substances appear simple because they consist of only one kind of element, they are rarely produced in pure forms in nature.
Even after the discovery of new elements, their isolation often presents difficulties. For example, since the manufacture of ultra high purity silicon is becoming very important in science a purification processes have been developed in recent years. Inorganic compounds of nonmetallic elements, such as gaseous carbon dioxide CO 2 , liquid sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 , or solid phosphorus pentoxide P 2 O 5 , satisfy the valence requirements of the component atoms and form discrete molecules which are not bonded together.
The compounds of main group metals such as liquid tin tetrachloride SnCl 4 and solid aluminum trichloride AlCl 3 have definite molecular weights and do not form infinite polymers. Most of the molecular compounds of transition metals are metal complexes and organometallic compounds in which ligands are coordinated to metals. These molecular compounds include not only mononuclear complexes with a metal center but also multinuclear complexes containing several metals, or cluster complexes having metal-metal bonds. Manfred Scheer Corresponding Author E-mail address: manfred.
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Reactivity of complexes 2 , 3 , and 4. Scheme 4 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Scheme 5 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Scheme 6 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Conflict of interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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